International Contractor

What is a contractor?

This is a person who undertakes a contract to perform services for specific clients under specific terms. The wording is explained further down the page. Contractors are normally paid on an ad hoc basis according to their output. This might be measured in time, productivity or deliverables.

What is the difference between a contractor and an employee?

Independent contractors have complete discretion for their job, including the manner and time in which it is completed, as well as the materials and equipment they utilise. Unlike employees, contractors are not subject to their clients’ management and work with little or no oversight.

Most tax authorities now measure the difference in 3 ways.

  • Who is in charge of the behaviour of the person performing the work?
  • Are they paid regardless of the work they perform?
  • What is the relationship between both of them?

Contractors’ relationship with the Client

The contractor is not an employee of the client. If the client terminates the assignment the contractor has no right to redress. The client is under no obligation to offer further work to the contractor, nor is the contractor obliged to accept it. In an employment relationship, the employer must offer work to the employee or else

Contractors generally don’t receive any of the statutory rights of employees – i.e. no holiday pay, no sick leave, no redundancy pay. Generally, if a contractor is off sick for more than a few days the client has the right to cancel the contract.

How is an international contractor paid?

They are only paid based on their output which can be measured in the hours that they work or results. The tax authorities often expect the contract to have a burden of risk on the contractor, i.e. they won’t get paid if they don’t achieve the specified results.

Who controls the contractor’s behaviour?

The question of who supervises is a difficult one – all external suppliers are in some measure supervised by the client. The contractor generally has more freedom to decide how and when they perform the services. For example, they may supply their equipment or work site. They may choose their working hours or take on multiple assignments at once. They may also choose to subcontract elements of the contract.

This freedom comes at a price because the contractor is also held responsible if they make mistakes in their work. They often have to repair these errors at no cost. This is a standard risk that contractors accept.

What are other names for Contractors?

They may also be known as independent contractors, freelancers or consultants. They may work through a self-employed system, their company or an umbrella company.

Explanation of definitions

Contract” means an agreement (normally written) which explains the services to be provided, who will provide them, and who will receive them. Crucially it also sets the terms and conditions of performance – e.g. what the contractor is (and isn’t allowed to do, how the client will reward the contractor for the work, and what happens if either party doesn’t do the right thing.

“Perform Services” is a broad term for whatever the client is paying to have done. It can be anything from software development to laying concrete.

“Specific Clients” means that the companies who will receive the services are named in the contract.

“Specific Terms” means all the conditions of the assignment such as the duration, location, pay rate, bonuses, working hours, deadlines, equipment required, etc.